By Dr Laura van Dalen.
I would like to clarify the terms Labrador, Golden, and Retriever. There is not such thing as Golden Labrador or retriever as a breed. A Labrador is a Labrador Retriever. A Golden is a Golden Retriever. Labradors and Goldens are both retrievers. A retriever is a dog that retrieves game to its master. All retrievers belong to the sporting group, but not all the dogs in the sporting group are retrievers. There are also spaniels, setters, pointers, and other breeds. What all of them have in common is that they were created to help their owners in the live supporting skill of bird hunting in the past.
Today, Labrador type has to do more with looks and body structure, than with actual bloodlines, and do not think that this is an “issue” exclusive to the Labrador Retriever. Most breeds in the sporting and hound groups have different types. Why does this happens? It happens because the reason why they are bred has changed through the years. Now that we do not depend on hunting to get food, most people see dogs more as our friends and life partners and not as working partners, and therefore, they care more about acquiring healthy well tempered and easy going companions that will look like the standard says it should look. Now you know that they were not created to warm up your couch, they were first bred to work, to hunt and to retrieve! Hunting is a sport, as well as the sport of pure breed dogs. Show breeders, want to breed a dog that looks, moves and behaves as close as the standard of the breed calls and I include myself in this group. Field breeders want to breed a dog that can hunt and retrieve as fast and efficient as possible. This is ultimately what caused the breeders to split and produce the 2 main types of Labradors, Field and Show.
Over the years I've heard of many Labrador types: Field, water, show or bench, American, British or English, etc. It can sure keep going and going. The show type Labrador is usually called British type Labrador. The field Labrador is often called American Labrador.
The correct terms to me (and this is my opinion only) are Show, also called Bench, Labradors and Field Labradors. I find hard to classify the Labradors as American and British. In my mind is easier to set them up as field and show, and then split the show type in specialty and all breed types.
There are American field Labs and British field Labs, but those terms refer more to the blood line of the dogs than to the actual type or “looks” of the dogs.
Lets talk a little about each of the different types, and remember this is just my humble opinion.
British (English) Show Labrador:
Dogs that were bred primarily to retrieve game from the side of his master. These dogs look like the standard says a Labrador should look. They are very short coupled, stocky, heavy-boned, and have "Blocky" broad heads with shorter, more square muzzles. Tails are usually very fat and short, the real otter tail. The coat is another mayor difference with the field type. The show Labs have thicker coats, they are harsh to the touch with lots of under coat. Size is at the lower end of the American standard height, more close to the British standard, but the weight is at the higher end. Males weight around 85 -95 pounds; females around 65-75 pounds. In regard to temperament, show Labs are more laid-back than Field labs. They are more easy going and highly trainable even though they are not as eager to work as their field version. The show type Labs make great pets.
Field (American) Labradors:
The field labs are designed for speed and endurance in the field. These dogs are bred to retrieve on the field or water. They have slim bodies and long legs and tails. They are a lot taller and lighter-boned. Some times they look more like a greyhound mix than a Lab because they had Greyhound introduced by early breeders to make them faster. They are far away from the written standard of the breed, and would do nothing in the show ring.
Temperaments wise, unfortunately the average pet owner may not have the experience and time to deal with these dogs. They are high-energy, extremely intelligent and demand a lot of time and a lot of exercise and space to use their abilities. They develop very strong bonds with their master, and this can translate in separation anxiety with the regular owner that works 8-10 hours a day.
Most Labs today have a mixture of show and field or English and American bloodlines, therefore, a particular "type" have nothing to do with the actual pedigree of the dog, but rather the appearance and purpose of the dog. A Labrador that is 100% pure American doesn't exist. On all dogs, you’ll find British blood lines if you go far enough in the pedigree.
Here you have the American Standard and the British standard. There are some differences, but in general they describe the same dog type.
FCI standard (British):
GENERAL APPEARANCE : Strongly built, short-coupled, very active; broad in skull; broad and deep through chest and ribs; broad and strong over loins and hindquarters.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Good-tempered, very agile. Excellent nose, soft mouth; keen lover of water. Adaptable, devoted companion. Intelligent, keen and biddable, with a strong will to please. Kindly nature, with no trace of aggression or undue shyness.
CRANIAL REGION : Skull : Broad. Clean-cut without fleshy cheeks. Stop : Defined.
FACIAL REGION : Nose : Wide, nostrils well developed. Muzzle: Powerful, not snipey. Jaws/Teeth: Jaws of medium length, jaws and teeth strong with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Eyes: Medium size, expressing intelligence and good temper; brown or hazel. Ears: Not large or heavy, hanging close to head and set rather far back.
Clean, strong, powerful, set into well placed shoulders.
Back : Level topline. Loins: Wide, short-coupled and strong. Chest: Of good width and depth, with well sprung barrel ribs.
TAIL : Distinctive feature, very thick towards the base, gradually tapering towards tip, medium length, free from feathering, but clothed thickly all round with short, thick, dense coat, thus giving « rounded » appearance described as « Otter » tail. May be carried gaily, but should not curl over back.
LIMBS: FOREQUARTERS: Forelegs well boned and straight from elbow to ground when viewed from either front or side. Shoulders: Long and sloping. HINDQUARTERS: Well developed, not sloping to tail. Stifle: Well turned. Hocks: well let down. Cowhocks highly undesirable. FEET: Round, compact; well-arched toes and well developed pads.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: Free, covering adequate ground; straight and true in front and rear.
COAT: HAIR: Distinctive feature, short, dense, without wave or feathering, giving fairly hard feel to the touch; weather-resistant undercoat. COLOUR : Wholly black, yellow or liver/chocolate. Yellows range from light cream to red fox. Small white spot on chest permissible.
SIZE: Ideal height at withers: dogs 56-57 cm (22- 22,5 ins); bitches 54-56 cm ( 21,5 - 22ins).
FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
FCI-Standard N° 122 / 29. 01. 1999 / GB
AKC standard (America):
The Labrador Retriever is a strongly built, medium-sized, short-coupled, dog possessing a sound, athletic, well-balanced conformation that enables it to function as a retrieving gun dog; the substance and soundness to hunt waterfowl or upland game for long hours under difficult conditions; the character and quality to win in the show ring; and the temperament to be a family companion. Physical features and mental characteristics should denote a dog bred to perform as an efficient Retriever of game with a stable temperament suitable for a variety of pursuits beyond the hunting environment.
The most distinguishing characteristics of the Labrador Retriever are its short, dense, weather resistant coat; an "otter" tail; a clean-cut head with broad back skull and moderate stop; powerful jaws; and its "kind," friendly eyes, expressing character, intelligence and good temperament.
Above all, a Labrador Retriever must be well balanced, enabling it to move in the show ring or work in the field with little or no effort. The typical Labrador possesses style and quality without over refinement, and substance without lumber or cloddiness. The Labrador is bred primarily as a working gun dog; structure and soundness are of great importance.
Size, Proportion and Substance
Size--The height at the withers for a dog is 22½ to 24½ inches; for a bitch is 21½ to 23½ inches. Any variance greater than ½ inch above or below these heights is a disqualification. Approximate weight of dogs and bitches in working condition: dogs 65 to 80 pounds; bitches 55 to 70 pounds.
The minimum height ranges set forth in the paragraph above shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.
Proportion--Short-coupled; length from the point of the shoulder to the point of the rump is equal to or slightly longer than the distance from the withers to the ground. Distance from the elbow to the ground should be equal to one half of the height at the withers. The brisket should extend to the elbows, but not perceptibly deeper. The body must be of sufficient length to permit a straight, free and efficient stride; but the dog should never appear low and long or tall and leggy in outline. Substance--Substance and bone proportionate to the overall dog. Light, "weedy" individuals are definitely incorrect; equally objectionable are cloddy lumbering specimens. Labrador Retrievers shall be shown in working condition well-muscled and without excess fat.
Skull--The skull should be wide; well developed but without exaggeration. The skull and foreface should be on parallel planes and of approximately equal length. There should be a moderate stop--the brow slightly pronounced so that the skull is not absolutely in a straight line with the nose. The brow ridges aid in defining the stop. The head should be clean-cut and free from fleshy cheeks; the bony structure of the skull chiseled beneath the eye with no prominence in the cheek. The skull may show some median line; the occipital bone is not conspicuous in mature dogs. Lips should not be squared off or pendulous, but fall away in a curve toward the throat. A wedge-shape head, or a head long and narrow in muzzle and back skull is incorrect as are massive, cheeky heads. The jaws are powerful and free from snippiness-- the muzzle neither long and narrow nor short and stubby. Nose-- The nose should be wide and the nostrils well-developed. The nose should be black on black or yellow dogs, and brown on chocolates. Nose color fading to a lighter shade is not a fault. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment is a disqualification. Teeth--The teeth should be strong and regular with a scissors bite; the lower teeth just behind, but touching the inner side of the upper incisors. A level bite is acceptable, but not desirable. Undershot, overshot, or misaligned teeth are serious faults. Full dentition is preferred. Missing molars or pre-molars are serious faults. Ears--The ears should hang moderately close to the head, set rather far back, and somewhat low on the skull; slightly above eye level. Ears should not be large and heavy, but in proportion with the skull and reach to the inside of the eye when pulled forward. Eyes--Kind, friendly eyes imparting good temperament, intelligence and alertness are a hallmark of the breed. They should be of medium size, set well apart, and neither protruding nor deep set. Eye color should be brown in black and yellow Labradors, and brown or hazel in chocolates. Black, or yellow eyes give a harsh expression and are undesirable. Small eyes, set close together or round prominent eyes are not typical of the breed. Eye rims are black in black and yellow Labradors; and brown in chocolates. Eye rims without pigmentation is a disqualification.
Neck, Topline and Body
Neck--The neck should be of proper length to allow the dog to retrieve game easily. It should be muscular and free from throatiness. The neck should rise strongly from the shoulders with a moderate arch. A short, thick neck or a "ewe" neck is incorrect. Topline--The back is strong and the topline is level from the withers to the croup when standing or moving. However, the loin should show evidence of flexibility for athletic endeavor. Body--The Labrador should be short-coupled, with good spring of ribs tapering to a moderately wide chest. The Labrador should not be narrow chested; giving the appearance of hollowness between the front legs, nor should it have a wide spreading, bulldog-like front. Correct chest conformation will result in tapering between the front legs that allows unrestricted forelimb movement. Chest breadth that is either too wide or too narrow for efficient movement and stamina is incorrect. Slab-sided individuals are not typical of the breed; equally objectionable are rotund or barrel chested specimens. The underline is almost straight, with little or no tuck-up in mature animals. Loins should be short, wide and strong; extending to well developed, powerful hindquarters. When viewed from the side, the Labrador Retriever shows a well-developed, but not exaggerated forechest. Tail--The tail is a distinguishing feature of the breed. It should be very thick at the base, gradually tapering toward the tip, of medium length, and extending no longer than to the hock. The tail should be free from feathering and clothed thickly all around with the Labrador's short, dense coat, thus having that peculiar rounded appearance that has been described as the "otter" tail. The tail should follow the topline in repose or when in motion. It may be carried gaily, but should not curl over the back. Extremely short tails or long thin tails are serious faults. The tail completes the balance of the Labrador by giving it a flowing line from the top of the head to the tip of the tail. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail is a disqualification.
Forequarters should be muscular, well coordinated and balanced with the hindquarters. Shoulders--The shoulders are well laid-back, long and sloping, forming an angle with the upper arm of approximately 90 degrees that permits the dog to move his forelegs in an easy manner with strong forward reach. Ideally, the length of the shoulder blade should equal the length of the upper arm. Straight shoulder blades, short upper arms or heavily muscled or loaded shoulders, all restricting free movement, are incorrect. Front Legs--When viewed from the front, the legs should be straight with good strong bone. Too much bone is as undesirable as too little bone, and short legged, heavy boned individuals are not typical of the breed. Viewed from the side, the elbows should be directly under the withers, and the front legs should be perpendicular to the ground and well under the body. The elbows should be close to the ribs without looseness. Tied-in elbows or being "out at the elbows" interfere with free movement and are serious faults. Pasterns should be strong and short and should slope slightly from the perpendicular line of the leg. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Dew claws may be removed. Splayed feet, hare feet, knuckling over, or feet turning in or out are serious faults.
The Labrador's hindquarters are broad, muscular and well-developed from the hip to the hock with well-turned stifles and strong short hocks. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the angulation of the rear legs is in balance with the front. The hind legs are strongly boned, muscled with moderate angulation at the stifle, and powerful, clearly defined thighs. The stifle is strong and there is no slippage of the patellae while in motion or when standing. The hock joints are strong, well let down and do not slip or hyper-extend while in motion or when standing. Angulation of both stifle and hock joint is such as to achieve the optimal balance of drive and traction. When standing the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Over angulation produces a sloping topline not typical of the breed. Feet are strong and compact, with well-arched toes and well-developed pads. Cow-hocks, spread hocks, sickle hocks and over-angulation are serious structural defects and are to be faulted.
The coat is a distinctive feature of the Labrador Retriever. It should be short, straight and very dense, giving a fairly hard feeling to the hand. The Labrador should have a soft, weather-resistant undercoat that provides protection from water, cold and all types of ground cover. A slight wave down the back is permissible. Woolly coats, soft silky coats, and sparse slick coats are not typical of the breed, and should be severely penalized.
The Labrador Retriever coat colors are black, yellow and chocolate. Any other color or a combination of colors is a disqualification. A small white spot on the chest is permissible, but not desirable. White hairs from aging or scarring are not to be misinterpreted as brindling. Black--Blacks are all black. A black with brindle markings or a black with tan markings is a disqualification. Yellow--Yellows may range in color from fox-red to light cream, with variations in shading on the ears, back, and underparts of the dog. Chocolate--Chocolates can vary in shade from light to dark chocolate. Chocolate with brindle or tan markings is a disqualification.
Movement of the Labrador Retriever should be free and effortless. When watching a dog move toward oneself, there should be no sign of elbows out. Rather, the elbows should be held neatly to the body with the legs not too close together. Moving straight forward without pacing or weaving, the legs should form straight lines, with all parts moving in the same plane. Upon viewing the dog from the rear, one should have the impression that the hind legs move as nearly as possible in a parallel line with the front legs. The hocks should do their full share of the work, flexing well, giving the appearance of power and strength. When viewed from the side, the shoulders should move freely and effortlessly, and the foreleg should reach forward close to the ground with extension. A short, choppy movement or high knee action indicates a straight shoulder; paddling indicates long, weak pasterns; and a short, stilted rear gait indicates a straight rear assembly; all are serious faults. Movement faults interfering with performance including weaving; side-winding; crossing over; high knee action; paddling; and short, choppy movement, should be severely penalized.
True Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the "otter" tail. The ideal disposition is one of a kindly, outgoing, tractable nature; eager to please and non-aggressive towards man or animal. The Labrador has much that appeals to people; his gentle ways, intelligence and adaptability make him an ideal dog. Aggressiveness towards humans or other animals, or any evidence of shyness in an adult should be severely penalized.
1. Any deviation from the height prescribed in the Standard.
2. A thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment.
3. Eye rims without pigment.
4. Docking or otherwise altering the length or natural carriage of the tail.
5. Any other color or a combination of colors other than black, yellow or chocolate as described in the Standard.
Approved February 12, 1994
Effective March 31, 1994
Copy/pasted from the AKC website
Some interesting links about Labradors:
Some common mismarks in Labradors
The Truth Behind "Silver" Labradors
Analysis of the 'silver' Labrador population
I wrote this article to educate the commonly mislead Labrador puppy future buyer researcher.